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GHG Protocol Accounting and Reporting Standard

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​Wanting to Account for your Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a way the supports your City or Business’ mission and goals?

Two GHG Protocol Accounting and Reporting Standards provide the guidance

1 - Corporate Standard

The GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard provides a step by step guide for businesses to account for their GHG emissions. It covers goals such as
  • Managing GHG risks
  • Identifying GHG reduction opportunities
  • Voluntary public reporting
  • Participating in GHG programmes and markets
It addresses the accounting and reporting of seven greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol – carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PCFs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

The standard was designed by a multi-stakeholder partnership  of business, NGO's, and others lead by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. It is compatible with National and regional industry initiatives, such as the New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development.

This standard is written primarily from the perspective of a business developing a GHG inventory. However, it applies equally to other types of organisations with operations that give rise to GHG emissions, e.g., NGOs, government agencies, and universities.

In addition to assessing direct GHG emissions, the protocol provides guidance for:

  • Assessing Scope 2 emissions, accounting for emissions from purchased or acquired electricity, steam, heat, and cooling.
  • Assessing Scope 3 emissions, accounting for indirect emissions that are a consequence of activities of the company, but occur from sources outside the control of the business. (e.g. Air travel, or emssions arising from product use)

Supplements to the protocol provides guidance:


Chapter 1: GHG Account and reporting principles
Chapter 2 Business Goals and Inventory Design
Chapter 3 Setting Organizational Boundaries
Chapter 4 Setting Operational Boundaries
Chapter 5 Tracking Emissions Over Time
Chapter 6 Identifying and Calculating GHG Emissions
Chapter 7 Managing Inventory Quality
Chapter 8 Accounting for GHG Reductions
Chapter 9 Reporting GHG Emissions
Chapter 10 Verification of GHG Emissions
Chapter 11 Setting GHG Targets
Appendix A Accounting for Indirect Emissions from Electricity
Appendix B Accounting for Sequestered Atmospheric Carbon
Appendix C Overview of GHG Programs
Appendix D Industry Sectors and Scopes



2 - Community Scale GHG standard

The cities protocol provides a robust methodology to measure and report community GHG emissions using across  stationary energy, transportation, waster, industrial processes and product uses, Agriculture, forestry and other land uses, and other emissions occurring outside the city as a result of city activities (Scope 3 emissions).


Part I : Introduction and Reporting Requirements

Chapter 2 Accounting and Reporting Principles

Chapter 3 Setting the Inventory Boundary

Chapter 4 Reporting Requirements

Part II : Calculation Guidance by Emission Source
Chapter 5 Overview of Calculating GHG Emissions

Chapter 6 Stationary Energy

Chapter 7 Transportation

Chapter 8 Waste

Chapter 9 Industrial Processes and Product Use

Chapter 10 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use

Part III : Tracking Changes and Setting Goals

Chapter 11 Setting Goals and Tracking Emissions Over Time

Chapter 12 Managing Inventory Quality and Verification


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